Course Curriculum of Executive Master in Health Economics (EMHE) (Session 2017-18)

  • The course curriculum is designed for those who work in the Government, Autonomous Bodies and NGOs but desire to learn Health Economics for their career.
  • Those who have at least Bachelor Degree from any recognized institution with professional experience preferably three years are eligible to apply for admission into the course. None need to apply who obtained third class or CGPA below 2.5 out of 4 in the graduation and master levels.
  • IHE will judge the suitability of the applicants and offer admission to 35 local students and any number of foreign students in each academic year.
  • The courses in this program include Basic Economic Theory, Health Economics Theory, Economics of Uncertainty and Health Insurance, Public Finance, Public Health and Management with minimum of tools for Health Economics.
  • The EMHE is a 18 months program consisting of 4 semesters, duration of each semester is four and half months. Each academic year starts in July.
  • A student has to enroll for 3 courses in each semester.
  • For other issues, the Institute will follow the standard rules and regulations practiced in IHE.

Microeconomics

    • Introduction: Definition of Economics, Positive and Normative Economics, Emergence of Economics, Efficiency and Economics, Microeconomics and Macroeconomics, Scope of Economics, Subject Matter of Economics
    • Basic Mathematics for Economics: Variables, Functions and Graphs, Law of Indices, Types and Solution of Equations, Limit Theorem, Simple Calculus- Differential and Integral, Maxima and Minima, and Optimization
    • Theory of Consumer Behavior: Utility Theory, Diamond-Water Paradox, Marginal Utility and Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility, Equi-marginal Principle, Indifference Curve Analysis, Substitution Effect and Income Effect, Derivation of Individual Demand and Market Demand Curves, Elasticity of Demand.
    • Theory of Production and Costs: Theory of Firm-production Function and Equilibrium, Derivation of Cost Functions, Different Types of Costs- Average Costs and Marginal Costs, Short Run and Long Run, Returns to Scale and Long Run
    • Market Structure: Definition, Characteristics and Equilibrium of Different Market Structures

Macroeconomics

  • Methods of Measuring National Income: National Income Accounting, Methods of Measuring National Income
  • Classical Theory and Keynesian Theory of Income Determination: Basic Model of Income Determination, Extended Model of Income Determination, Classical Theory of Income and Employment, Keynesian Theory of Income Determination
  • Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies for Health Sector

References:

  1. Samuelson, Paul A. and Nordhaus, William D. (2005) Economics, 18th Edition, McGraw-Hill/ Irwin
  2. Mankiw, N. Gregory, Principles of Economics, 4th Edition, Cengage Learning.
  3. Varian, Hal R. Intermediate Microeconomics
  4. Dornbusch, R. and Fischer, S. Macroeconomics, McGraw Hill.
  5. Dowling E., Schaum’s outline, Mathematics for Economics.

Biostatistics

  • Introduction: Uses and Scope of Biostatistics
  • Data: Definition, Classification, Sources of Data
  • Classification of Statistical Techniques, Measurement Scales /Levels
  • Presenting Data: Frequency Distribution, Tabulation of Data, Graphical presentation of Data
  • Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, Mode
  • Measures of Dispersion: Mean Deviation, Quartile Deviation, Standard Deviation & Variance, Moments and Skewness, Kurtosis
  • Correlation and Regression Analysis
  • Index Numbers
  • Time Series Analysis
  • Probability: Basic Concepts, Types and Rules
  • Distribution: Normal, Bi-nominal, Logistic
  • Sampling: Sample, Census and Sampling, Sampling Techniques, Errors and Biases in Sampling, Sampling Distribution
  • Methods of Data Collection
  • Hypothesis Testing: Parametric and Non-parametric Tests.

Epidemiology

  • Introduction: History and Basic Concepts, Approaches, Objectives, Importance
  • Tools of Measurement: Rate, Ratio, Proportion, Mortality Measurement, and Morbidity Measurement- Prevalence and Incidence
  • Methods of Epidemiological Study: Descriptive, Analytical, Experimental, Estimation of Risk- Relative Risk Ratio, Odd Ratio, Biases in Epidemiological Studies
  • Sampling for Epidemiological Study
  • Screening: Basic Concepts and Types, Instruments and Quality, Tools of Validity, Confounding Factors
  • Criteria for Causal Inference
  • Case Investigation
  • Term Paper

References:

  1. Murry R. S., Theory & Problems of Statistics
  2. Islam M. N., An Introduction to Statistics & Probability
  3. Gupta S. P., Advanced Practical Statistics
  4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2012), An Introduction to Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics, http://www.cdc.gov/ophss/csels/dsepd/ss1978/ss1978.pdf
  5. Park and Park, Text Book of Community Medicine
  6. Hyder R. K., Text Book of Community Medicine and Health

Health Systems

  • Introduction: Definition, Good Health Systems, Systems Concept of Hospital, Overview of Health Systems, Models of Health Systems, Systems of Health, Objective of Health Systems, Function of Health Systems, Building Blocks of Health Systems, Interaction of Building Blocks and Function, Health Systems Actors, Essential Public Health Functions
  • Systems of Health: Beveridge Public Model, Bismarch Mixed Model, Mixed Health Systems Syndrome
  • Development of Bangladesh Health Structure
  • Important Issues Related to Health in Bangladesh: Access, Coverage, Efficiency, Equity, Quality, Safety, Sustainability
  • Health Work Force
  • Procurement Policy of HNP Sector
  • Health Care Financing
  • Health Governance
  • Health Information System
  • Evaluation of Health Systems
  • Health Care Service Delivery System of Bangladesh

Health Services Management

  • Management: Fundamentals of Management, Management Thought, Objective, Decision Making, Organization & Organization Structure, Delegation & Decentralization, Problems in Human Relation, Management Control Techniques
  • Introduction to Public Health Management: Definition, Size and Scale of Management, Public Service Organizations, Relationship Between Public Sector, Private Sector and Public Service; Context of Change in Public Health Management, Features of New Public Health Management and Its Limitation
  • Manager Responsibilities: Administrative Function, Health Care Marketing
  • Managing Finance: Management Accounting Techniques
  • Budgeting and Allocation of Resources: Capitation Formula, Accreditation of Facilities, Need Based Allocation of Resources
  • Materials Management: Elements of Materials Management, Inventory Control, Purchasing
  • Managing Support Services: Medical Records, Housekeeping Services, Hospital Engineering Services, Biomedical Waste Management, Ambulance Services
  • Managing Human Resources: The Cutting Edge of HRD, HR Accounting, HR Planning, Model Service Rules
    -Managing Relations: Public Relations in Hospitals
  • Quality of Care and Services: Modern Approach to Quality, Criteria of Quality, Total Quality Management
  • Decentralization in The Public Sector: Centralization and Decentralization, Importance of Decentralization, Methods, Effects, Problems and Prospect of Decentralization

Reference:

  1. Syed A., Tabish M., Hospital and Health Services Administration-Principles an Practice
  2. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; Govt. of Bangladesh, (2002), Human Resource Management in Health.
  3. Government of Bangladesh, (2015), Health Bulletin
  4. Wilkinson, R., Marmot, M., (2003), Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts, World Health Organization (http://www.euro.who.int/document/e81384.pdf)
  5. .Marmot, M. and et al. (2003), Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization (Executive Summary)
  6. Mathers, Colin D., and DejanLoncar.,(2006), Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030, PLoS Medicine 3.,: 2011-2030.

-Introduction: Laissez Faire and Market Mechanism, Preference and Choice
-Theory of Consumer Behavior: Utility Maximization Problem, Marshallian Theory of Demand, Indifference Curve Analysis, Comparative Statics, Demand Function, Theory of Revealed Preference, Expected Utility Theorem, Demand Function for Health Care
-Theory of Production and Cost: The Production Function, Iso-Quant and Technical Efficiency, Iso-Cost, Firm’s Equilibrium, Production Efficiency, Expansion Path, Cost Minimization, Cost Functions Under Different Technology, Average and Marginal Costs, Factor Demand, Factor Prices
-Market Structure: Perfect Competition and Allocative Efficiency, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition, Oligopoly, Strategic Decision Making, Strategic form Games, Extensive form Games
-Market of Inputs: Rent, Wage, Interest and Profit Determination
-Adverse Selection, Signaling, And Screening: Information Asymmetries and Adverse Selection, Signaling, Screening
-The Principal-Agent Problem: Introduction, Moral Hazard, Hidden Information, Hidden Actions and Hidden Information
-General Equilibrium: Equilibrium in Exchange, Equilibrium in Competitive Market Systems, Equilibrium in Production
-Theories of Welfare Maximization: Pareto Efficiency and Social Welfare Theorem, Compensation Criteria, Arrow’s Theorem, Market Failures and Welfare, Role of Government
References:
1.Varian, Hal R., Microeconomic Analysis
2.Mas-Colell, Andreu, Whinston, Michael D., and Green J.R., Microeconomic Theory
3.Jehle G. A., and Reny P.J., Advanced Microeconomic Theory

Economics of Health Care
-Introduction to Health Economics: Definition of Economics, Causes of Market Failures and Need for Health Economics. Definition of Health Economics, The Scope and Importance of Health Economics
-Production of Health and Demand for Health Care: Production of Health and Demand for Health Care, Health Care as an Input into The Production of Health
-Theory of Consumer Behavior: Diamond-Water Paradox, Marshallian Theory of Demand, Indifference Curve Analysis, Determinants of Demand for Health Care, Elasticity of Demand for Health Care
-Theory of Production and Cost of Health Care: Production Function Of Different Health Care Services, Fixed Vs. Variable Inputs, Short Run Vs. Long Run Period, Producer’s Equilibrium, Derivation Of Cost Curve – Total, Average, Marginal, Relationship- Average And Marginal, Short-Run And Long-Run Cost Curves, Economies Of Scale And Economies Of Scope

-Health Care Markets: Market Structure, Perfect Competition: Characteristics of Markets and Firms, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition, Oligopoly, Efficiency in Health Care Market
-Agency Relationship and Supplier Induced Demand: Agency Relationship and Information Asymmetry, Market for Lemons, Imperfect Agent and Supplier Induced Demand, Different Models of Supplier Induced Demand
-Government Regulation in Health: Market Failures and Role of Public Sector
-Theory of Role of Non-Government Organization In Health
-Health Care Financing and Universal Health Coverage: Definition of Health Care Financing, Different Methods of Health Care Financing, Concept of Universal Health Coverage
-Economics of Health Insurance: Basic Theory of Health Insurance, Coinsurance, Copayments, Deductibles, Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection
-Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health, Relationship Between Ill Health and Poverty, Health In Other Policies, Sustainable Development Goals
Population Economics
-Introduction: Economic Causes and Effects of Population Pressure
-Microeconomic Analysis of Some Population Issues: Demand for Children, Son Vs Daughter Preference, Demand for Family Planning, Rural- Urban Migration (Harris-Todaro Model), Subsidy on Health Goods, Rationing of Health Goods
-Effects of Population Growth on Macroeconomy: Impact on Consumption, Savings, Capital-Output Ratio, Unemployment Rate and Wage Rate
-Basic Theories of Population: Malthus, Boserup, Bilsborrow, Coale and Hoover, Geertz, Theory of Cohen- Earth’s Carrying Capacity
-Effects in Bangladesh: Effects on Land Holding and Rural Employment, Industrial Employment and Export of Manpower
-How to Control Population and Investing in People
Nutrition Economics:
-Causes and Effects of Malnutrition: Myths about Malnutrition, Reasons for Weak Commitment to Nutrition Program, Vicious Cycle of Nutrition and Malnutrition, Importance of Investment in Nutrition, Benefits and Costs of Nutrition Program
References:
1.Folland S., Goodman A.C., and Stano M., (2000), The Economics of health and health Care, Macmillan (3rd edition).
2.Culyer A.J., and Newhouse J.P., (2000), North-Holland Handbook of Health Economics, Elsevier.
3.Arrow K. (1975), Social Choice and Individual Values.
4.Jack W., (1999), Principlesof Health Economics for Developing Countries, World Bank Institute.
5.Morris S., Appleby J., and Parkin D., (1983), Economic Analysis in Health Care, Lee K. and Mills A. The Economics of Health in Developing Countries; Oxford University Press.
6.McGuire A., Henderson J. and Mooney G., (1988), The Economics of Health Care: an introductory text; London, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
7.Mills A. and Gilson L. (1988), Health Economics for Developing Countries: A Survival Kit.
8.Zweifel P. and Breyer F., (1997), Health Economics, O.U.P.
9.Jacob P., (2004), The Economics of Health and Medical Care, Jones and Bartlett Learning.
10.Coale A. J, and Hoover E. M., (2015), Population growth and economic development. Princeton University Press
11.Razin A. and Sadka E., (1995), Population Economics, The MIT Press, The International Economy 1996.2 (1996): 88-90.
12.Lee, R., (2009), New perspectives on population growth and economic development, Trabajopreparado para the UNFPA plenary session on After Cairo, Issues and Challenges
13.Schultz T. W., (1982.), Investing in people: The economics of population quality, University of California Press
14.Cohen J. E., (1995), Population growth and earth’s human carrying capacity, Science 269.5222: 341.
15.Marquette C., (1997)., Turning but not toppling Malthus: Boserupian theory on population and the environment relationships
16.Geertz C., (1963), Agricultural involution: the process of ecological change in Indonesia, Vol. 11, University of California Press
17.White B., (1976), Population, involution and employment in rural Java, Development and Change,7.3 (1976): 267-290.
18.Becker G. S., (2009), A Treatise on the Family. Harvard university press, 2009
19.Becker G.S., (1973), A theory of marriage: Part I.” The Journal of Political Economy: 813-846.
20.Becker G. S., (1960), ‘An economic analysis of fertility’, Demographic and economic change in developed countries”. Columbia University Press. 209-240.
21.Becker, G; S., and Lewis H. G., (1974), Interaction between quantity and quality of children.” Economics of the family: Marriage, children, and human capital, University of Chicago Press,. 81-90.
22.Becker G. S., (1974), “A theory of marriage”, Economics of the family: Marriage, children, and human capital. University of Chicago Press, 1974. 299-351.
23.Barro, R. J., and Becker G. S., (1989), “Fertility choice in a model of economic growth.”Econometrica: journal of the Econometric Society: 481-501.
24.Todaro M. P., Smith S. C., (2015), Economic Development (12th Edition), Pearson
25.World Bank, (2006), Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development: A Strategy for Large-Scale Action

-Better Coverage Initiatives: Health for All and Primary Health Care, Essential Services Package, Millennium Development Goals, Universal Health Coverage, Sustainable Development Goals
-Policy: Situation Analysis, Policy Formulation, Bangladesh Health Policy, Strategies and Plans; Health Policies in Other Countries
-Planning: Principles of Planning, Need for Planning, Steps of Planning, Economic Appraisal/ Sustainability Analysis, Operational Plan
-Techniques of Planning: Logical Framework, Linear Programming, Input-Output Model, Decision Tree, Network Analysis, Activity Analysis
-Policy Analysis: Formulation and Implementation, Notions of The Policy Process, Policy ‘Failure’, Models of Policy Implementation
Reference:
1.Green A., (1988), An Introduction to Health Planning in Developing Countries, Oxford, OUP.
2.Abel S. B., (1994), An Introduction to Health Policy, Planning and Financing. London, Longmans.
3.Ministry of Planning, Govt. of Bangladesh (2003), Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP),.
4.Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Govt. of Bangladesh, (2002), Human Resource Management in Health.
5.Health Care Spending in U.S. Growing More Rapidly Than in Most Other Developed Countries, Analysis Shows http://www.kff.org/insurance/snapshot/OECD042111.cfm
6.UN (1994), International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo, Egypt.
7.UN (2000), Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
8.Reinke W., (1988), Health Planning for Effective Management, Oxford, OUP.
9.World Health Organization, World Health Reports
10.Pliskin, J.S. and et. al., (2006), Focused Operations Management for Health Services Organizations, Josey-Bass: A Wiley Imprint
11.Syed A., Tabish M., Hospital and Health Services Administration-Principles an Practice.
12.Hyder R. K., Text Book of Community Medicine and Health
13.Park and Park, Text Book of Community Medicine
14.Bruce J. F., Myron D., Fottler and Johnson J. A., Human Resources in Healthcare Managing for Success.
15.Agarwal R. D., Organization and Management

-Introduction to Hospital Management: An Epidemiological Perspective for Healthcare Management, Challenges and Strategies in Hospital Management, Functions of Hospital Management
-Modern Techniques in Hospital Management: The Feedback Loop, Time Series Analysis, Value Analysis and Queuing Theory, Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) And Critical Path Method (CPM), Statistical Quality Control and Operations Research, Cost Analysis, Management By Objectives (MBO), Quality Circles And Management Problem Solving Methods (MAPS)
-Responsibilities of a Manager: Administrative Functions and Healthcare Marketing
-Managing Finance: Management Accounting Techniques and Depreciation
-Materials Management: Elements of Materials Management, Inventory Control and Purchasing
-Managing Service Delivery: Principles of Risk Management, Risk Management- a New Paradigm, Legal Aspects of Health Care
-Managing Support Services: Medical Records and its Computerization, Housekeeping, Hospital Engineering, Ambulance, Optimizing Laboratory Performance, Biomedical Waste Management
-Human Resource Management: The Cutting Edge Of HRD, HR Accounting and Planning, Service Rules (Model), Managing Nursing Services
-Management Information System (MIS): Effective Communication in Healthcare Organization, Integrated Hospital Information Systems, Patient Care Information Systems
-Managing Relations: Public Relations in Hospitals
-Quality Issues in Health Care: Managing Quality – Quality from Providers’ Perspective, Medical Audit and Quality, Cost Implications of Quality, Quantity Vs. Quality, The Reasons for Cross-Border Healthcare, Importance of Quality to Providers and Consumers, Quality Assurance
References:
1.Iles (1997), Really Managing Health Care
2.Strike (1995), Human Resources in Health Care: A Manager’s Guide
3.Tabis M., (2001), Hospital and Health Services Administration: Principles and Practice

-Introduction: Need for Public Sector Interventions, Efficiency of Health Service Delivery, Importance of Economic Evaluation of Health Care
-Techniques of Economic Evaluation: Partial Economic Evaluation and Full Economic Evaluation, Different Techniques of Economic Evaluation
-Cost Analysis: Selection of Cost, Estimation of Cost, Top Down and Bottom-Up Approach, Discounting and Annuity Factor, Cost Minimization Analysis
-Cost Effectiveness Analysis: Definition, When We Should Conduct Cost Effectiveness Analysis? Average Cost Effectiveness Ratio, Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio, Concept of Dominance and Extended Dominance, Critical Value of Cost Effectiveness Ratio
-Cost Utility Analysis: What Is Cost Utility Analysis? When We Should Conduct Cost Utility Analysis? Differences Between Cost Effectiveness Analysis and Cost Utility Analysis, Measuring Health Outcomes Under Cost Utility Analysis, Quality Adjusted Life Years (Qalys), Disability Adjusted Life Years (Dalys)
-Cost Benefit Analysis: Concept of Cost Benefit Analysis, Measuring Benefits Under Cost Benefit Analysis; Direct, Indirect and Intangible Benefits, Willingness-To-Pay Surveys, Ranking Alternatives Under Cost Benefit Analysis
-Emerging Techniques of Measuring Burden of Disease
-Decision Tree Analysis: Uncertainty and Models in Economic Evaluation
-Health Impact Assessment: What Is Health Impact Assessment? Importance of Health Impact Assessment, Methods of Health Impact Assessment, Evidences on Health Impact Assessment.
References:
1.Drummond M. F., Stoddart G. L. and Torrance (2015), Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes; Oxford University Press.
2.Sloan F. A. (1995), Valuing Health Care; Cambridge University Press.
3.Gold M. R., Seigel J. E., Russell L. B., and Weinstein M. C. (1996), Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine, Oxford University Press.
4.Jacobs P. (1991), The Economics of Health and Medical Care; Aspen Publishers, Inc. Gaithersburg, Maryland
5.Mills A. and Gilson L. (1988), Health Economics for Developing Countries: A Survival Kit; EPC Publication no. 17, Health Policy Unit, LSHTM
6.Zschock D. K. (1983), Health Care Financing in Developing Countries
7.Culyer A.J. and Newhouse J.P. (2000), North-Holland Handbook of Health Economics, Elsevier.
8.Arrow K. (1975), Social Choice and Individual Values
9.Morris S., Appleby J. and Parkin D., Economic Analysis in Health Care

-Introduction to Econometrics
-Application of Simple and Multiple Regression Model
-Statistical Inference of The Estimates of Regression Parameters
-Regression with Qualitative Explanatory Variables: Binary (Or Dummy) Variables
-Binary Outcome Model and Regression with Truncated and Censored Dependent Variable: Logit, Probit, Tobit Regression
Reference:
1.Wooldridge J. M., Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach
2,Cameron A. C. and Trivedi P. K., Microeconometrics: Methods and Application
3.Green W. H., Econometrics Analysis
4.Jones A. M., (2005), Applied Econometrics for Health Economists: A Practical Guide

OR

EMHE 610: Economics of Health Insurance

-Insurance and its Economic Role
-Risk: Measurement, Perception, and Management of Health Risks
-Demand for Health Insurance: Decisions Under Risk with Diversification Possibilities Vis-A-Vis without Diversification Possibilities
-The Health Insurance Company and its Insurance Technology
-The Supply of Health Insurance
-Health Insurance Markets and Asymmetric Information
-Social Health Insurance
-Regulation of Health Insurance
-Actuarial Methods and Designing of Health Insurance
-Challenges Confronting Health Insurance
References:
1.Zweifel P., &Eisen R., (2012), Insurance economics, Springer Science & Business Media.
2.Borch K. H., Sandmo A., &Aase K. K., (2014), Economics of Insurance (Vol. 29). Elsevier.
3.Seog S. H. (2010), The economics of risk and insurance. John Wiley & Sons.
4.Dionne G., & Harrington S. E. (1992), An introduction to insurance economics. In Foundations of Insurance Economics (pp. 1-48). Springer Netherlands.
5.Finkelstein A., (2014), Moral Hazard in Health Insurance. Columbia University Press.

1. Insurance and its Economic Role
2. Uncertainty, Turning Uncertainty into Risk, Utility Under Uncertainty
3. Risk: Measurement, Perception, and Management of Health Risks
4. Demand for Health Insurance: Decisions Under Risk with Diversification Possibilities Vis-A-Vis without Diversification Possibilities
5. The Health Insurance Company and its Insurance Technology
6. The Supply of Health Insurance
7. Health Insurance Market and Asymmetric Information: Basic Adverse Selection Models, Advanced Topics in Adverse Selection, Moral Hazard, Ex Post Moral Hazard and Fraud
8. Insurance Pricing: Actuarial Methods and Designing of Health Insurance
9. Social Health Insurance
10. Reinsurance Market
11. Regulation of Health Insurance
12. Challenges Confronting Health Insurance

References:
1. Zweifel P., &Eisen R., (2012), Insurance economics, Springer Science & Business Media.
2. Borch K. H., Sandmo A., &Aase K. K., (2014), Economics of Insurance (Vol. 29). Elsevier.
3. Seog S. H. (2010), The economics of risk and insurance. John Wiley & Sons.
4. Dionne G., & Harrington S. E. (1992), An introduction to insurance economics. In Foundations of Insurance Economics (pp. 1-48). Springer Netherlands.
5. Finkelstein A., (2014), Moral Hazard in Health Insurance. Columbia University Press.

-Introduction: Definition, Scope and Importance of Pharmaceutical Economics
-Demand: Demand for Pharmaceutical Products Vis-A-Vis other Commodities, Determinants of Demand of Pharmaceutical Products, Health Insurance Vs Demand for Pharmaceutical Products, Price Discrimination of Pharmaceutical Products, Market Entry of Generic Drugs and Its Impact on Demand of Patent Drugs, And Therapeutic Equivalence and The Generic Competition Paradox
-Promotion (Advertising) And Marketing of Pharmaceutical Products: Marketing of Pharmaceutical Products Vis-A-Vis Other Commodities, Pharmaceutical Promotion Policies, Impact of Aggressive Marketing on Demand, Price and Quality of Pharmaceutical Products
-Pharmaceutical Industry: Structure of the Industry, Role Of R&D, Product Development Cycle and Patient Policies, Vertical and Horizontal Integration of Pharmaceutical Firms
-Market Structure of Pharmaceutical Products
-Pricing of Pharmaceutical Products: Pharmaceutical Prices and Pricing Models, E.G., Regulation of Mark-Ups in Pharmaceutical Supply and Distribution Chain, Costs Plus Pricing Formulae, External Reference Pricing
-Pharmaceutical Policies: The Public Choice Model of Policy Making, Pharmaceuticals, Cross National Price Differences, Drug Policies and the Politics of Essential Drugs in Bangladesh
-Regulations: Government Regulation and the Drug Administration, Patent Protection, New Drug Introduction, Generic Products Approval of New Drugs, Pricing of New Drugs, Drug Policy and The Politics of Essential Drugs in Bangladesh
-Economic Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Products: Cost-Effectiveness, Cost-Utility and Cost-Benefit Analysis, Mrakov Modeling, and Measurement of Outcomes
References:
1.Ronad J. V., Pharmaceutical Economics and Public Policies
2.Chowdhury Z., Politics of Essential Drugs
3.Sloan F.A., and Hsieh C. R., Health Economics
4.Drummond M.F. and et. al. (2015), Methods of Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes, Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford.
5.Gold M R and et. al., (1996), Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine, Oxford University Press
6.Schweitzer S. (1997), Pharmaceutical Economics & Policy, Oxford University Press

-Introduction: Importance, Need of Health Care, Demand for Health Care, Production of Health Care, Health Care Financing, Efficiency and Equity
-Demand for Health Care: Access and Access Barriers, Health Seeking Behavior, Medical Tourism, Grossman Model and Its Implications, Determinants of Demand for Health Care, Social Determinants of Health
-Market Failures and The Role of Government: Information Asymmetries, Externalities, Affordability and Deprivation for The Demand of Health Care, Government Intervention
-Efficiency in Health Care Production: Concept, Technical, Production and Allocative Efficiency, Different Methods of Measuring Efficiency
-Resource Allocation and Equity in Health Care Delivery: Concept, Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical Equity, Resource Allocation Formula
-Provider Payment Mechanisms: Prospective Payment Mechanisms, Retrospective Payment Mechanisms, Per Capita Reimbursement, Per Case Reimbursement, Drugs
-Financing of Health Care: Concept, Tax Financed Health Care System, Private Health Insurance, Social Health Insurance, Community Health Insurance, Out of Pocket Payments, User Fees, Other Non-Traditional Methods of Health Financing, Medical Saving Scheme, Contributions of Developing Partners, Health Care Financing Strategy of Bangladesh, Equity in Health Care
-Quality of Health Care and Medical Malpractices
– Health System Responsiveness: Prompt attention, Dignity, Clear communication, Autonomy, Confidentiality, Choice of provider, Quality of basic amenities, Access to social support networks.
-Market for Physicians’ Services
-Market of Drugs and Pharmaceutical Manufacturers
-Overview of National Health Accounts: Concept, Classification of Function, Classification of Provider, Health Financing Schemes, Financing Agents, Bangladesh National Health Accounts
Evaluation of Major Health Systems: UK System, German System and US System
References:
1.Culyer A.J. and Newhouse J.P., (2000), North-Holland Handbook of Health Economics, Elsevier.
2.Arrow K. (1975), Social Choice and Individual Values.
3.Folland S., Goodman A.C. and Stano M., (2000), The Economics of health and health care, Macmillan (3rdedn).
4.Jack W., (1999), Principles of Health Economics for Developing Countries, World Bank Institute
5.Morris S., Appleby J., and Parkin D., (1983), Economic Analysis in Health Care
6.Lee K. and Mills A., (1983), The Economics of Health in Developing Countries. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
7.Lee K. and Mills A., (1983), The Economics of Health in Developing Countries. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
8.McGuire A., Henderson J., Mooney G., (1988), The Economics of Health Care: an introductory text, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
9.Mills a. and Gilson L., (1988), Health Economics for Developing Countries: A Survival Kit
10.Zweifel P., and Breyer F., (1997), Health Economics, O.U.P.
11.Health Economics Unit, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Bangladesh National Health Account (1997-2012), Health Impact Assessment: A practical guide, University of New South Wales

EMHE 613: Health Project Design and Project Paper
-Approximately fifteen classes will be held on the issues relating to project design and management. Class tests (10 marks) and midterm examination (20 marks) will be held on the subject matters of class lectures.
-Each student will prepare a project proposal which will be finalized after presentation in the class (15 marks), before midterm examination.
-There will be no final examination for this course. The project papers prepared by the students will be treated as the substitute for the final examination (50 marks). Students will conduct field work and prepare the dissertation in four weeks after the semester final examination. Thereafter, a viva-voce examination will be held on the dissertation.
Contents of Lectures:
-Introduction: History, Constrain, Knowledge, Success and Failure Causes, Project Vs Program, Project Management Vs Process Management, Project Vs Operation, Pillars, Current Challenges, Maturity Measure.
-Project Lifecycle
-Project Initiation
-Project Leadership and Team Development
-Stakeholder Analysis, Scope Management, Communication Management
-Time Management
-Project Planning
-Risk Management, Change Management
-Procurement Management
-Project Control and Close Out
-Project Charter Development
-Tools And Techniques For Project : Work Breakdown Structure, Gantt Chart, PERT, Critical Path, Delphi Technique, BOSCARD, MoSCoW Method, RACI Matrix
References:
1.Horine G., (2012), Project Management Absolute Beginner’s Guide (3rd Edition)
2.Joseph H., Fundamentals of Project Management (Worksmart) 4th Editio
3.Bonnie E., (2015), The 3-Step Guide to Choosing the Right Project Management Methodology
4.A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, PMI Standards Committee, Project Management Institute, 1996 ISBN 1880410133
5.Pritchard C. L., (2001), Risk Management: Concepts and Guidance, 2nd Edition, ESI International

OR

EMHE 614: Research Methodology and Dissertation

-Approximately fifteen classes will be held on methods of conducting research. Class tests (10 marks) and midterm examination (20 marks) will be held on the subject matters of class lectures.
-Each student will prepare research proposal which will be finalized after presentation in the class (15 marks), before midterm examination.
-There will be no final examination for this course. The dissertation prepared by the students will be treated as the substitute for the final examination (50 marks). Students will conduct fieldwork and prepare the dissertation in four weeks after the semester final examination. Thereafter, a viva-voce examination will be held on the dissertation.
Contents of Lectures:
-Introduction to Research Methodology, Methods of Acquiring Knowledge, Definition of Research, Difference between Research and other Methods of Acquiring Knowledge, Definition of Scientific Research
-Important Theories of Knowledge (Epistemology): Rationalism (Descartes and Spinoza), Empiricism (Locke, Hume, Berkley), Composite View (Aristotle, Kant), Major Lessons of Epistemology for Research
-Method of Conducting Research (Logic): Non-scientific Methods, Scientific Methods – Deduction(Aristotle), Induction (Becon, Hobbes), Composite Method for social science research
-Evolution of Scientific Research
-Crucial Steps in Research
-Detailed Steps in Research (including steps in survey)
-Method of Preparing research proposal
-Method of preparing Thesis/ Dissertation
References:
1.Sharma B.A.V. and et. al., Research Methods in Social Science.
2.Kish L., (1965), Survey Sampling, John Willey & Sons, Sydney
3.Wilkinson S., (1982), Methodology and techniques of Social research
4.Monette D. R. and et. al., (1986), Applied Social Research – Tool for the Human Services, (Fourth edition), Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
5.Levy P. S., Lemeshow S., (1999), Sampling of Population- Methods & Applications, (Third edition), John Willey & Sons, Inc.
6.Foreit J. R. and et. al., (2006), Scientific Writing for Reproductive Health Program, USAID, Population Council, WHO.
7.Department of Economic & Social Affairs- Statistics Division (2005), Designing Household Survey Sample: Practical Guidelines, UN, New York.

Approximately fifteen classes will be held on methods of conducting research. Class tests (10 marks) and midterm examination (20 marks) will be held on the subject matters of class lectures.

Each student will prepare research proposal which will be finalized after presentation in the class (15 marks), before midterm examination.

There will be no final examination for this course. The dissertation prepared by the students will be treated as the substitute for the final examination (50 marks). Students will conduct fieldwork and prepare the dissertation in four weeks after the semester final examination. Thereafter, a viva-voce examination will be held on the dissertation.

Contents of Lectures:

1. Introduction to Research Methodology, Methods of Acquiring Knowledge, Definition of Research, Difference between Research and other Methods of Acquiring Knowledge, Definition of Scientific Research
2. Important Theories of Knowledge (Epistemology): Rationalism (Descartes and Spinoza), Empiricism (Locke, Hume, Berkley), Composite View (Aristotle, Kant), Major Lessons of Epistemology for Research
3. Method of Conducting Research (Logic): Non-scientific Methods, Scientific Methods – Deduction(Aristotle), Induction (Becon, Hobbes), Composite Method for social science research
4. Evolution of Scientific Research
5. Crucial Steps in Research
6. Detailed Steps in Research (including steps in survey)
7. Method of Preparing research proposal
8. Method of preparing Thesis/ Dissertation

References:
1. Sharma B.A.V. andet. al., Research Methods in Social Science.
2. Kish L., (1965), Survey Sampling, John Willey & Sons, Sydney
3. Wilkinson S., (1982), Methodology and techniques of Social research
4. Monette D. R. and et. al., (1986), Applied Social Research – Tool for the Human Services, (Fourth edition), Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
5. Levy P. S., Lemeshow S., (1999), Sampling of Population- Methods & Applications, (Third edition), John Willey & Sons, Inc.
6. Foreit J. R. and et. al., (2006), Scientific Writing for Reproductive Health Program, USAID, Population Council, WHO.
7. Department of Economic & Social Affairs- Statistics Division (2005), Designing Household Survey Sample: Practical Guidelines, UN, New York.